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¿Qué se hace durante la sesión de Psicoterapia?

Posted on March 13, 2013 at 3:17 PM
Lo que ocurre dentro de la sesión de Psicoterapia depende de la orientación, modelo, método o escuela (Psicología Humanista, Psicoanálisis, Modificación de Comportamiento...) que siga el psicoterapeuta. Pero también depende del problema que aporte el cliente y los recursos de éste. Aquí describiremos en términos generales lo que se hace, conforme al modelo teórico adoptado en AVANZA: (Psicología Humanista)

Las primeras sesiones son un poco especiales, porque van encaminadas a explorar los problemas que se quieren afrontar en Psicoterapia y los cambios personales que se solicitan, teniendo en cuenta el lugar que ocupan dentro de la vida y la personalidad del cliente, y a concretar los objetivos de la Psicoterapia en una especie de "contrato" en el que la terapeuta y el cliente se comprometen a poner en común su actividad encaminada al logro de unos cambios concretos. Por eso, en buena parte, las primeras entrevistas consisten en ir comunicando a la psicoterapeuta los detalles que rodean la realidad cotidiana del cliente, y la evolución de los problemas a tratar y las posibles causas de los mismos, a fin de resolver no solamente el síntoma en sí, sino también -en lo posible- la raíz profunda que lo ocasiona, así como realizar determinadas tareas, tales como dibujos, escribir narraciones o describir fantasías que servirán a modo de tests (proyectivos) para completar el diagnóstico con los aspectos más ocultos del problema de los que elcliente no es consciente.

Normalmente, en las sesiones siguientes, el cliente comenta los pasos que ha dado en la vida cotidiana para aplicar lo que ha aprendido en la terapia, y el resultado de los mismos, así como cualquier otro aspecto que crea significativo (de su vida actual o del pasado) que le parezca importante que conozca la psicoterapeuta, porque le puedan aportar luz sobre el problema, sus causas o soluciones, y también cambios que se están produciendo en su vida y que conviene que la terapeuta conozca para integrarlos con el trabajo que los dos conjuntamente están haciendo. La psicoterapeuta propone actividades que ayuden al cliente a darse cuenta de los puntos en los que se bloquea el problema y de enfoques distintos que pueden llevar al desbloqueo. Esas actividades son muy variadas: fantasía guiada (p.e.: imaginar una escena simbólica en la que se resuelve el problema, o sueños que han impactado a la persona), ensayo de comportamiento, teatralización de una escena problemática, técnicas de relajación, intervenciones corporales, dibujos, etc. Ocasionalmente se proponen tareas concretas para realizar en casa.

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